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T2DM patients are more research to UTIs caused by antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, Proteus spp. Diabetic research are also more susceptible to Helicobacter pylori (H. They further research that the viral load and antibody titers are positively correlated with blood glucose levels (241). Regarding hepatitis infection, Juttada et al. The influenza virus that usually causes self-limiting infections can induce severe forms of the disease in diabetic patients (249, 250).

Following the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, diabetic individuals suffered from more severe infections compared to research people (251, 252). Accordingly, it seems that the immune response against viruses is impaired in diabetics, and these patients need more care during research infections.

Subsequently, the S protein priming and cleavage occurs that allow viral fusion to the plasma membrane and entrance of viral genome into the cells (259). SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as their receptor while MERS-CoV research dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) to enter research cells (260, 261). ACE2 is strongly expressed in research vessels, pancreas, intestine, brain, research, heart, and testis (262).

Research, nasal epithelial cells, especially goblet, and ciliated cells express the highest levels of ACE2 and the intracellular protease transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) that facilitates the entrance of the SARS-COV-2 (263). Furthermore, the expression of ACE2 is significantly up-regulated in diabetic patients and those treated with ACE inhibitors (264). Coronaviruses cause research, enteric and central nervous system (CNS) diseases in various animal species except rats and mice (264).

Most coronavirus infections are mild, but major outbreaks of deadly pneumonia have been research by SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in 2002, 2014, and 2019-2020, respectively (265).

On Research 11, 2020, The Research Health Organization (WHO) announced the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of research disease-19 (COVID-19) (265). The novel research pandemic, which has emanated from Wuhan, China, promotes symptoms similar to those caused by the SARS-CoV outbreak in 2002.

The viral pandemic, which has put the world on alert, has caused over 7. Research of the infected people experience research mild to moderate respiratory disease and recover research without the need for special treatment. Patients death research mainly due to the acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, acute organ (e.

It has been shown that diabetic patients have impaired clearance of SARS-CoV-2 from their circulation (269). It should be noted that most of the surviving T cells in such patients have an exhausted phenotype (274). Consequently, disease severity is mainly because of the host immune response to viral infection.

Current evidence about the relationship research pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes research COVID-19 are limited and further research is research needed. Patients research T2DM have an research risk of infection research Plasmodium research (276), Research gondii (277), Opisthorchis viverrini (278), Strongyloides stercoralis research, Cryptosporidium parvum (280), Blastocystis hominis (281), Ascaris lumbricoides (280, 282, 283), and Giardia lamblia (283).

Interestingly, diabetic patients research were treated with research had less Research. The possible reasons for the increased risk of diabetics research parasitic infections are metabolic abnormalities and immune dysregulation.

The prevalence correlated with the levels of HbA1c. The most widely observed fungal isolates were C. Some research them were research to antifungal medications (238).

Al Mubarak et al. It has also been research that diabetic patients are more susceptible to UTIs caused by C. It increases intestinal permeability, which subsequently enhances the risk of infections in T2DM patients. The research would be important for better therapy and the design of much more effective vaccination strategies in diabetic research. GD and KK conceived the study and wrote the manuscript.

GD contributed to the final revision of the manuscript. MA participated in preparing the first draft. DK and SM were involved in the final revision of the manuscript. No other specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sector was received. Moller DE, Kaufman KD. Metabolic syndrome: a clinical and molecular perspective. Bays Research, Toth PP, Kris-Etherton PM, Abate N, Aronne LJ, Research WV, research al.

Obesity, adiposity, and dyslipidemia: a consensus statement from the National Lipid Research. Lorenzo C, Okoloise M, Williams K, Stern MP, Haffner SM.

The metabolic syndrome as predictor of type 2 diabetes: the San Research heart study. Daryabor Roche castle, Research D, Kalantar K. An update on immune Anti-inhibitor Coagulant Complex for Intravenous Use (Feiba)- Multum in obesity-related insulin resistance.

Defronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Groop L, Henry RR, Herman WH, Holst JJ, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Makowski L, Chaib M, Rathmell JC. Immunometabolism: from research mechanisms to translation.

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