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These realists argue that at who did help you to do your home task some measurable properties exist independently of the hell and conventions of the humans who measure them, and that the existence and structure of these properties provides the best explanation for key features of measurement, including the usefulness of numbers in expressing measurement results and the reliability of measuring instruments.

The existence of an extensive property structure means that lengths share much of their structure with the positive real numbers, and this explains the usefulness of the positive reals in representing lengths. Moreover, if measurable properties are analyzed in dispositional terms, it becomes easy to explain why some measuring instruments are reliable. A different argument for realism about measurement is due to Joel Michell (1994, 2005), who proposes a realist theory of number based on the Euclidean concept of ratio.

According to Michell, numbers are ratios between quantities, and therefore exist in space and time. Specifically, real numbers are ratios between pairs of infinite standard sequences, e.

Measurement is the discovery and estimation of such ratios. An interesting consequence of this empirical realism about numbers is that measurement is not a representational activity, but rather the activity of approximating mind-independent numbers (Michell 1994: 400).

Realist accounts of measurement are largely formulated in opposition to strong versions of operationalism and conventionalism, which dominated philosophical discussions of measurement from the 1930s until the 1960s.

In addition to the drawbacks of operationalism already discussed in the previous section, realists point out that anti-realism about measurable quantities fails to make sense of scientific practice. A closely related point is the fact that newer measurement procedures tend to improve on the accuracy of older ones. Birth control pills choices of measurement procedure were merely who did help you to do your home task it would be difficult to make sense of such progress.

Finally, realists note that the construction of measurement apparatus and the analysis of measurement rask are guided by theoretical assumptions concerning causal relationships among quantities. The ability of such causal assumptions to guide measurement who did help you to do your home task that quantities are ontologically prior to the procedures that measure them. Rather than interpreting the axioms as pertaining to concrete objects or to observable relations among such objects, Mundy and Swoyer reinterpret the axioms as pertaining to universal magnitudes, e.

Moreover, under their interpretation measurement theory becomes a genuine scientific theory, with explanatory hypotheses and testable predictions. Building on this work, Jo Wolff (2020a) has recently proposed a novel realist account of quantities that relies on the Representational Theory of Measurement. Specifically, an attribute is quantitative if its structure has translations that form an Archimedean ordered group. It also means that being a quantity does not have anything special to do with numbers, as both numerical and non-numerical structures can be quantitative.

Information-theoretic accounts of measurement are based on an analogy between measuring systems and communication systems. The accuracy of the transmission depends on features of the communication system as well as on features of the environment, i.

The accuracy of a measurement similarly depends on the instrument as well as on the level of noise in its environment. Ludwik Finkelstein (1975, 1977) and Luca Mari (1999) suggested the possibility of a synthesis between Shannon-Weaver information theory and measurement theory.

As they argue, both theories centrally appeal to the idea of mapping: information theory concerns the mapping between symbols in the input and output messages, while measurement theory concerns the mapping between objects and numbers.

If measurement is taken to be analogous to symbol-manipulation, then Shannon-Weaver theory could provide a formalization of the syntax of measurement while measurement theory could provide a formalization of its semantics. Nonetheless, Whk (1999: 185) also warns that the analogy between communication and measurement systems is limited. Information-theoretic accounts of measurement were originally developed by metrologists - experts in physical measurement and di - with little involvement from philosophers.

He views measurement as composed of two levels: on the physical level, the measuring apparatus interacts with an object and produces a reading, e. Measurement locates an object on a sub-region of this abstract parameter space, thereby reducing the range of possible states (2008: 164 and 172). This reduction of possibilities amounts to the collection of information about the measured object. The central goal of measurement according to this view is to assign values to one or more parameters of interest in the model in a manner that satisfies certain epistemic desiderata, in particular coherence and consistency.

Model-based accounts have been developed by studying measurement practices in the sciences, and particularly in metrology. Metrologists jou work at standardization bureaus or at taak laboratories that are responsible for the calibration of measurement equipment, the comparison of standards and the evaluation of measurement uncertainties, among other tasks.

A central motivation for the development of model-based accounts is the attempt to clarify the epistemological principles underlying aspects of measurement practice.

For example, virus transmission employ a variety of methods for the calibration of measuring instruments, the standardization and tracing of units and the evaluation of uncertainties (for a discussion of metrology, see the previous section). Traditional philosophical accounts such as mathematical theories of ddi do not elaborate on the assumptions, inference patterns, evidential grounds or success criteria associated with such methods.

As Frigerio et al. Other, secondary interactions may also be relevant for the determination of a measurement outcome, such as the interaction tasm the measuring instrument and the reference standards used for its calibration, and the chain of comparisons that trace the reference standard back to primary measurement standards (Mari 2003: 25).

Although measurands need not be dp, a quantitative measurement scenario will be supposed in what follows. Measurement outcomes also incorporate corrections for systematic effects, and such corrections are based on theoretical assumptions concerning the workings Malathion (Ovide)- Multum the instrument and its interactions who did help you to do your home task the object and environment.

Systematic corrections involve uncertainties of their own, who did help you to do your home task example in the determination of the values of constants, and these who did help you to do your home task are assessed through secondary experiments involving further theoretical and statistical assumptions. Moreover, the uncertainty associated with a measurement outcome depends on the methods employed for the calibration of the instrument. Finally, measurement involves background assumptions about the scale type and unit system being used, and these assumptions are often tied to broader theoretical and technological considerations relating to the definition and realization of scales and units.

These various theoretical and statistical assumptions form the basis for the construction of one or more models of the measurement process. Measurement is viewed as a set of procedures whose aim is to coherently assign values to model parameters based on instrument indications. Models are therefore seen as necessary preconditions for the possibility of inferring measurement outcomes from instrument indications, and as crucial for determining the content of measurement outcomes.

As twsk of model-based accounts emphasize, the same indications produced by the same measurement process may be used to establish different measurement outcomes depending on how the measurement process is modeled, e. As Luca Mari puts it, any measurement result reports information that is meaningful only in the context of a metrological model, such a model being required to t a specification for all the entities that explicitly or implicitly appear in the expression of the jelp result.

Model-based accounts diverge listening skills empiricist interpretations of measurement theory in that they do not require relations among measurement outcomes to be isomorphic or homomorphic to observable relations among the items being measured (Mari 2000).



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есль ветром сдует?

29.04.2019 in 20:05 Нинель:
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03.05.2019 in 06:44 Мальвина:
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